ناجێگیریی سیاسەتی ئەمریکا بەرانبەر ڕۆژئاوای کوردستان


Inconsistency in the US Foreign Policy towards Syrian Kurdistan
NNawzad Abduallah  Shukri 
Department of International Relations and Diplomacy, College Of Political Science, University of Salahaddin-Erbil

Abstract

This study attempts to explain the US policy towards Syrian Kurds and highlight the key reasons behind establishing of military relations between Kurds and US. Further, it endeavors to explore the fact that why the US policy towards Syria Kurds is unstable and why Trump administration allowed Turkey to attack Kurdish autonomous region in Syria. In reality, the emergence of relations between Kurds and US backed to 2014, especially when ISIS controlled vast majority of Syria and Iraq territory and posed serious threat to the US security interests in Iraq and region. In this regards, the US saw the Kurdish forces as a trusted partner to confront ISIS in Syria. In particular, the Syrian armed groups did not want to fight ISIS and even some of them had relations with ISIS.

However, despite the US military support to the Kurds, but politically US has a contradiction and unstable policy toward Kurds in Syria and it does not have any intention or agenda to support autonomous region or federal system for Kurds. This has been the key reasons behind Trump attempts to withdrawal its troops from Syria without taking into consideration the future of the Kurds there and allowed Turkey to attack Kurds. In fact, Turkey pressures, US willingness to withdrawal its troops form Middle East and defeating ISIS might push US to completely withdrawal all forces and abandon the Kurds in Syria.


پوختە

ئەم توێژینەوەیە بە شێوەیەكی ورد باس لە سیاسەتی ئەمریكا بەرانبەر ڕۆژئاوای كوردستان دەكات. بە تایبەتی ھۆكارە سەرەكییەكانی دروستبوونی پەیوەندیی سەربازیی نێوان كوردەكان و ئەمریكا دەستنیشاندەكات. توێژینەوەكە بە پشتبەستن بە تیوری ڕیالیزمی كلاسیکیی نوێ مەبەستیەتی ھۆكارەكانی ناجێگیری و ناسەقامگیریی سیاسەتی ئەمریكا بەرانبەر ڕۆژئاوای كوردستان دیاریبكات و بە خستنەڕووی ئەرگیۆمێنتی زانستی، ئەوە ڕوونبكاتەوە، كە بۆچی تڕەمپ ڕێگەیدا توركیا ھێرش بكاتە سەر ڕۆژئاوای كوردستان.

 سەرەتای دروستبوونی پەیوەندیی نێوان ڕۆژئاوای كوردستان و ئەمریكا دەگەڕێتەوە بۆ ساڵی ٢٠١٤. بە تایبەتی دوای ئەوەی داعش توانی بەشێكی زۆری خاكی عێراق و سووریا داگیر بكات، ئەمریكا بۆ پاراستنی بەرژەوەندییەكانی، پەنای بۆ هێزە کوردییەکان برد، وەك ھاوبەشێكی سەرەكی لە شەڕی دژی داعش. لێرەدا پاڵپشتیی ئەمریكا لە ڕۆژئاوای كوردستان زیاتر لە ڕووی سەبازییەوە چڕ بووە نەك سیاسی. ھەر بۆیەش سیاسەتی ئەمریكا بەرانبەر كوردەكان سیاسەتێكی ناسەقامگیر و نا جێگیرە. بەو مانایەی كە پەیوەندیی ئەمریكا لەگەڵ كوردەكاندا تەنیا لە چواچێوەی شەڕی داعشدا ماوەتەوە و ئەو پەیوەندییانە لە ڕووی سیاسییەوە گەشەی زۆریان نەكردووە. ئەم توێژینەوەیە جەخت لەسەر ئەوە دەكاتەوە كە گوشارەكانی توركیا، كۆتاییھاتنی شەڕی داعش، ڕوانگەی بازرگانیی تڕەمپ، ویستی تڕەمپ بۆ كشانەوەی ھێزەكانی لە ناوچەكەدا و نەبوونی ڕوانگەیەكی دیموكراسی و ستراتیژی بۆ سووریا كاریگەریی نەرێنییان لەسەر ھەڵوێستەكانی تڕەمپ بەرانبەر بە کورد هەبووە.

وشە كلیلییەكان: ئەمریكا، ڕۆژئاوای كوردستان، تڕەمپ، ئۆباما

 ملخص الدراسة

تسلط هذه الدراسة الضوء وبشكل دقيق على السياسة الامريكية تجاه غرب كوردستان، خصوصاً وان هدف الدراسة هو تحديد الاسباب الرئيسية وراء تأسيس العلاقات العسكرية بين الكورد وامريكا وتحليل اسباب وعوامل عدم استقرار وثبات السياسة الامريكية تجاه غرب كوردستان. كذلك تحاول هذه الدراسة ومن خلال عرض الحجج العلمية ان تبين عن اسباب قيام ادارة ترمب بالتخلي عن الكورد والسماح لتركيا بالهجوم على غرب كوردستان. في الحقيقة ترجع بداية تأسيس العلاقات بين غرب كوردستان وامريكا الى سنة ٢٠١٤، خصوصاً بعد احتلال داعش لقسم كبير من الاراضي العراقية والسورية وتمكنها من ان تكون تهديداً وخطراً جدياً على المصالح الامريكية، ضمن هذا الاطار اعتبرت امريكا العامل الكوردي عاملاً مهماً في مواجهة داعش في سوريا، لا سيما وان غالبية المعارضة السورية آنذاك كانت عبارة عن مجموعات راديكالية واغلبها لم تكن فقط غير مستعدة لقتال داعش بل كانت متعاطفة معها أيضاً. على الرغم من الدعم الامريكي لغرب كوردستان من الناحية العسكرية، الا إنه ليس خافياً من ان امريكا تنحو سياسة غير ثابتة وغير مستقرة تجاه الكورد. ليست لامريكا أي مشروع سياسي للكورد في سوريا ولم تتحدث يوماً عن اي نظام حكم ذاتي او اتحادي للكورد، بمعنى ان العلاقات الامريكية مع الكورد بقيت ضمن اطار الحرب مع داعش ولم تتطور من الناحية السياسية. لذلك يتبين انه وبعد هزيمة داعش من الناحية العسكرية ومن دون الاهتمام بمصير الكورد حاول ترامب عدة مرات من اجل سحب القوات الامريكية من سوريا، كذلك سمح للقوات التركية بالهجوم على الكورد. لا شك ان مصالح ترمب مع تركيا و رغبته في سحب القوات الامريكية من الشرق الاوسط وهزيمة داعش كلها من العوامل التي قد تجعل من امريكا ان تفكر في سحب قواتها نهائياً من سوريا وان تترك الكورد يواجهون مصيرهم بمفردهم.

لیستی سەرچاوەکان:

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