Right to Self-determination: Iraqi Kurdistan Region and Kosovo as A Case Study


Right to Self-determination: Iraqi Kurdistan Region and Kosovo as A Case Study
Sanh Shareef Qader
Faculty of Law, Political Science and Management, Soran University

Abstract:

The Iraqi Kurdistan region and Kosovo have their own struggles in exercising their right to self-determination. Both regions became victims as a result of trying to achieve independence. However, Kosovo's independence was successful, while the Kurdistan region's attempt for independence was not. It must be assumed that there must be reasons for the failure of independence in the Iraqi Kurdistan region, as well as Kosovo's successful independence. The international community's interests, in both cases, have to be explored as well. In other words, what are the reasons for the failure of the Kurdistan region's independence and the success of Kosovo independence? Further, this paper aims at defining self-determination and then providing a historical review of the Iraqi Kurdistan region, Kosovo's struggle for achieving the right to self-determination, and also a precise analysis of both cases. The methodology used in this paper is pure library research; focusing mainly on secondary sources. This paper legally recommends that the KRG must try to negotiate with the Iraqi federal government following a bilateral agreement under the supervision of international mediation whereby the Kurdistan region can have the right to secede when a constitutional violation is taken place by the federal government. Kurdistan region must review its relations with all international actors, which play a main role in the Middle East and make a lobby group by including separatists groups and other Kurds who live abroad to gather support for its independence in the future.

Keywords: Self-Determination, Kurdish Autonomy, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Kosovo and Serbia, International Community.

 پوختە:

هەرێمی كوردستانی عێراق و كۆسۆڤۆ خەباتی خۆیان هەیە بۆ پیادەكردنی مافی چارەی خۆنونوسینی خۆیان. هەردووكیان قوربانیێكی زۆریان داوە وەكو ئەنجامێكی هەولدان بۆ بەدەستهێنانی دەولەتی سەربەخۆیی بەلام سەربەخۆیی كۆسۆڤۆ سەركەتوو بوو بە بەراورد بە هەولی هەرێمی كوردستان بۆ سەربەخۆیی كە سەركەتوو نە بوو. دەبێت وا دابنرێت كە هۆكار هەبن بۆ سەرنەكەوتنی سەربەخۆیی لە هەرێمی كوردستانی عێراق، وە هەروەها بۆ سەركەوتنی سەربەخۆسی كۆسۆڤۆ. پێوستە بەرژەندیەكانی كۆمەلگای نێودەولەتی لە هەردوو باردا بدۆزرێنەوە. بە ماناێكیتر هۆكارەكانی سەركەوتنی سەربەخۆیی كۆسوۆڤۆو سەرنەكەوتنی سەربەحۆیی هەرێمی كوردستان چین. بۆ ئەم مەبەستەش ئەم توێژینەوەیە ئامانجیەتی پیناسەێكی مافی چارەی خۆنوسین، وە پیاچونەوەێكی میژوویی خەباتی هەرێمی كوردستانی عێراق وكۆسۆڤۆ بۆ بەدەستهێنانی ئەم مافە بكات، لە گەل ئەمەشدا شیكردنەوەێكی وورد لە هەردوو باردا پێشكەش بكات.

رێبازی ئەم توێژینەوەیە بە شێوەیەكی سەرەكی پشتی بەستوە بە سەرچاوە لاوەكیەكان بۆ كۆكردنەوەی زانیاریەكان لە رێگەی پەرتوكخانە. راسپاردەی گرنگی ئەم توێژینەوەیە وایە كە حكومەتی هەرێمی كوردستان هەول بدات گفتوگۆ لەگەل حكومەتی فیدرالی عێراق بكات بەپێی ریكەوتنێكی دووللایەنە بەسەرپەرشتی لایەنی نێودەولەتی كە لە كاتی هەبوونی هەر پێشلكاریەكی دەستوری لەلایەن حكومەتی فیدرال، هەرێم مافی جیابوونەوەی هەبێت. لەلایەكی ترەوەش،دەبێت هەرێمی كوردستانی عێراق پیاچوونەوەێكی پەیوەندیەكانی خۆی بكات لە گەل هەموو ئەو ئەكتەرە نێودەوەلەتیانەدا كە رۆلێكی سەرەكی دەگێرن لە رۆژهەلاتی ناوەراست، وە گروپی فشار درووست بكات بە لە خۆگرتنی گرووپە جوداخوازەكان و كوردەكانیتر لە تاراوگە بۆ بەدەستهێنانی پشتگیری بۆ دەولەتی سەربەخۆی خۆی لە داهاتوودا. 

وشە كلیلییەكان: مافی چارەی خۆنوسین ، حوكمی خۆبەرێوەبەری كوردی، هەرێمی كوردستانی عێراق، كۆسۆڤۆ و سربیا، كۆمەلگای نێودەولەتی.

ملخص:

لدى إقليم كردستان العراق وكوسوفو نضالهم الخاصة في ممارسة حقهم في تقرير المصير. سقطت المنطقتان ضحية نتيجة لمحاولاتهم نيل الاستقلال ، لكن كوسوفو كانت أوفرو حظا مقارنة بإقليم كردستان العراق في هذه الناحية، لأن محاولة إقليم كردستان لم يكتب لها النجاح. من المفترض أن يكون هناك أسباب لفشل الاستقلال في إقليم كردستان العراق ، فضلا عن استقلال كوسوفو الناجح. كما يجب النظر إلى مصالح المجتمع الدولي في كلتا الحالتين. بكلمة أخرى ، ما هي أسباب فشل استقلال إقليم كردستان ونجاح استقلال كوسوفو؟ لذلك ، تهدف هذا الدراسة إلى تعريف مصطلح تقرير المصير ، ثم القيام بمراجعة تاريخية لإقليم كردستان العراق ، و نضال كوسوفومن أجل الوصول إلى حق تقرير المصير ، وتحليل دقيق لكلتا الحالتين.

المنهجية المستخدمة في هذه الورقة هي التركز بشكل أساسي على المصادر الثانوية وذلك من خلال المكتبة. يوصي هذا البحث قانونيا بأن حكومة إقليم كردستان يجب أن تحاول التفاوض مع الحكومة الفيدرالية العراقية وفقا لاتفاق ثنائي تحت إشراف و وساطة دولية حيث يمكن لإقليم كردستان أن ينال استقلاله عند حدوث انتهاك دستوري من قبل الحكومة الاتحادية ، بينما يجب على إقليم كردستان مراجعة علاقاته مع جميع الأطراف الدولية ، التي تلعب أدوارًا رئيسياَ في الشرق الأوسط ، وتشكيل جماعة ضغط تتضمن أولئك الذين يدعمون استقلال الكرد والكرد الآخرين اللذين يعيشون في الخارج من أجل جمع الدعم لاستقلالها في المستقبل.

الكلمات المفتاحية: تقرير المصير ، الحكم الذاتي الكردي ، إقليم كردستان العراق ، كوسوفو وصربيا ، المجتمع الدولي.


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