Terrorism and Iraqi National Security 2003-2017: the Socio-Economic and Cultural Losses


Terrorism and Iraqi National Security 2003-2017: the Socio-Economic and Cultural Losses
NNayar Muhiadeen Hamadamin, Othman Ahmed Ali 
Faculty of Law, Political Science and Management, Soran University, College of Arts Relations, Salahaddin University

Abstract

This paper is entitled "Terrorism and Iraqi National Security 2003-2017: the Socio-Economic and Cultural Losses".  It discusses the impact of the acts of terrorist groups, especially by Al Qaeda and ISIS on Iraqi national security. Besides, it highlights the impact of terrorist groups on the Iraqi national unity, and socio-cultural sectors of Iraq's society. The findings of our paper show the wide range extent of damages done by the two mentioned terrorist organizations on Iraq's national security, in terms of cost, time, and quality. Besides, the terrorist acts, especially that of ISIS, had a profound effect on Iraq's peace, stability, and had disrupted the social cohesion of Iraqi society.

Keywords: ISIS, Al-Qaeda, National Security, Culture, and Iraqi Society

 پوخته‌:

ئەم لێکۆڵینەوەیە بە ناونیشانی (تیرۆر و ئاسایشی نەتەوەیی عێراق ٢٠٠٣-٢٠١٧: لێکەوتە کۆمەڵایەتی و ئابووری و کەلتورییەكان). ئەم توێژینەوەیە شیکردنەوەیەک بۆ کاریگەریی کردەوەی گرووپە تیرۆریستییەکان، بەتایبەتی هەردوو گرووپی تیرۆریستیی قاعیدە و داعش دەکات، هەروەها کاریگەریی کردەوە تیرۆریستییەکان لەسەر یەکگرتوویی خاکی عێراق و لایەنی کۆمەڵایەتی و کەلتووری کۆمەڵگای عێراقی. ئەنجامەکانی ئەم توێژینەوەیە ئاماژە دەدەن کە تا چەند کردەوە تیرۆریستییەکان کاریگەرییان لە سەر ئاسایشی نەتەوەیی عێراقی بە جێ هێشتوە. کردەوە تیرۆریستییەکان، بەتایبەت داعش، کاریگەرییەکی قوڵی لەسەر ئاسایش و سەقامگیری کۆمەڵگای عێراقی هەبووە.

ملخص:

هذا البحث بعنوان "الإرهاب والآمن القومي العراقي 2003-2017: الخسائر الاجتماعية والاقتصادية والثقافية".  يناقش تأثير أعمال الجماعات الإرهابية ، خاصة تنظيم القاعدة وتنظيم الدولة الإسلامية علي الآمن القومي العراقي.  بالإضافة إلي ذلك ، يسلط الضو‌ء علي تأثير الجماعات الإرهابية علي الوحدة الوطنية العراقية ، والقطاعات الاجتماعية والثقافية للمجتمع العراقي.  تشير النتائج إلي مدى تأثير الآعمال الإرهابية علي الآمن القومي العراقي من حيث التكلفة والوقت والجودة.  إن الآعمال الإرهابية ، وخاصة أعمال داعش ، كان لها أثر عميق على أمن وسلامة العراق واستقراره ، وأخلت بالتماسك الاجتماعي للمجتمع العراقي

Reference

-      Abdul Latif, S, M, and Muhammad, H, J., 2018. Terrorism and its impact on the peaceful coexistence of religions and sects in Iraq, Informative News Network, Retrieved: January 11 2020, from https://amp.annabaa.org/arabic/studies/15915?fbclid=IwAR3lYOcvDbByUTgDJcTaVOJGsYsACSMGFBO1SJaeFCrO7cYCGE_QBPwcf4I

-      Al-Azzawi, A, 2015. ISIS besieges religious tourism in Iraq. The New Arab. [Online] Available at: https://www.alaraby.co.uk/economy/2015/6/30/%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%AD%D8%A7%D8%B5%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AD%D8%A9 %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%82(Accessed 5 December 2019).

-      Albu, C.E., 2016. Tourism and Terrorism: A worldwide perspective. CES Working Papers, 8(1), pp. 9-10.

-      Arosoaie, A., 2015. Iraq. International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 7(1), p. 62.

-      Bakker, E. and Boer, L., 2007. The evolution of Al-Qaedaism. Clingendael Institute, p.7.

-      BBC NEWS, 2015. What is 'Islamic State? [Online] Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144 (Accessed December 24 2018).

-      Bender, J 2014. A Jihadist Group That's Too Radical for Al Qaeda is Threatening Iraq's Water Supply, [online] Business Insider Australia, Retrieved: January 5 2020, from https://www.businessinsider.com.au/al-qaeda-offshoot-now-effectively-controls-iraqs-water-supply-2014 6?fbclid=IwAR3ugXMF1CDHBGmKwoIxprLAVRdxGKT2bE4ZeGPlAnbyhjCkfvDhhYKC84A

-      Bertrand, N 2015. We're getting to know just how different ISIS is from al Qaeda. BUSINESS INSIDER [Online] Available at https://www.businessinsider.com/difference-between-isis-and-al-qaeda-2015-5 (Accessed January 14 2019).

-      Byman, D., 2015. Terrorism in Africa: The Imminent Threat to the United States. Prepared testimony before the Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence of the House Committee on Homeland Security, 4.

-      El Damanhoury, K., 2017. Understanding ISIS's Provincial Propaganda: A Visual Framing Analysis of Wilayat Sinai's Imagery in 2016. Journal of Middle East Media, 13, p.15.

-      Ferris, E.G., 2008. The looming crisis: displacement and security in Iraq. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

-      Ganor, B., 2015. Four questions on ISIS: a "trend" analysis of the Islamic State. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(3), p. 59.

-      Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, 2018. Education Under Attack 2018 – Iraq. real-world. [online] Available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/5be9430d4.html?fbclid=IwAR1Wobspu1VUfavbfcQY0xDZ3pQRkedUb7cCX9vbm9zl1AgCVZETW6zvimE#_ftn1072 [Accessed 2 Jan 2020].

-      Gomes, A.D.T., and Mikhael, M.M., 2018. Terror or Terrorism? Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State in Comparative Perspective. Brazilian Political Science Review, 12(1).

-      Gunaratna, R., 2015. Global Threat Forecast The Rise of ISIS. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 8(1), p 7.

-      Human Rights Council, 2018. Negative Effects of Terrorism on the Enjoyment of Human Rights. [Online] Available at:https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/AdvisoryCommittee/Pages/NegativeEffectsTerrorism.aspx (Accessed December 7 2019).

-      International Committee of The Red Cross 2018. Health Care in Danger campaign: Stop violence against medical personnel and facilities in Iraq. [online] Available at:

-      https://www.icrc.org/en/document/health-care-danger-campaign-stop-violence-against-medical-personnel-and-facilities-iraq [Accessed 2 Jan 2020].

-      International Monetary Fund 2105. Iraq: Selected issues. [online] Available at:

-      file:///C:/Users/Niar/Downloads/_cr15236a%20(2).pdf [Accessed 21 Jan 2020].

-      International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2008. Emergency Needs Assessments, Post-February 2006 Displacement in Iraq. [Online] Available at https://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/media/docs/reports/wg_update_032008.pdf (Accessed December 10 2019).

-      Jaffe, A.M., 2007. Iraq's oil sector: past, present, and future. James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy and the Japan Petroleum Energy Center. Rice University. P 1.

-      Kalin, S 2017. After I.S., Mosul re-builds monuments, mosques - and society, Reuters, Retrieved: January 17 2020, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-iraq-identity/after-is-mosul-rebuilds-monuments-mosques-and-society-idUSKBN1AB0J8?fbclid=IwAR1EgWD3hfqhSYANiQiB_jrS9_wrDQqqsyLX4-bDqF8dDqSi-yTp6B8loMA

-      Kaválek, T., 2015. From al-Qaeda in Iraq to Islamic State: The Story of Insurgency in Iraq and Syria in 2003-2015. Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, 14(1), pp.2-7.

-      Khalil, Sh, 2017. The investment in Iraq: a chance to get out of the bottleneck. Rawabet Center for Research and Strategic Studies. [Online] Available at http://rawabetcenter.com/en/?p=3404 (Accessed December 12 2019).

-      Kirdar, M.J., 2011. Al Qaeda in Iraq. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Case Study, (1). P. 1.

-      Knights, M., 2013. The Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in Iraq. Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

-      Lewis, J.D., 2013. Al-QAedA in Iraq resurgent. Middle East Security Report, 14, p.9.

-      Lischer, S. K., 2008. Security and Displacement in Iraq: Responding to the Forced Migration Crisis. International Security, 33(2), pp. 95-97.

-      Lostal, M 2015. The systematic destruction of cultural heritage at the hands of the Islamic State, GLOBAL POLICY FORUM, Retrieved: January 19 2020, from https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/144-bibliographies/52745-the-systematic-destruction-of-cultural-heritage-at-the-hands-of-the-islamic-state.html

-      McCabe, Th, R 2017.  An ISIS-Al Qaeda Merger? Small Wars Journal [Online] Available at:

-      https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/an-isis-al-qaeda-merger?fbclid=IwAR2Ah4vCRmvX5e-mCvsW730JGnSMOmokGZ4JxUO9jvjx285DQVgpM_HfG6Q (Accessed January 15 2019).

-      Ningthoujam, A, S 2014. Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and it is South Asian Connection: An Indian Perspective. Vivekananda International foundation

-      Nordland, J 2014. Extremists in Iraq Attack Shiite Shrine, Killing 6, The New York Times, Retrieved: January 14 2020, fromhttps://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/01/world/middleeast/sunni-extremists-in-iraq-fire-mortars-into-shiite-shrine.html

-      Nováček, K, Simone, M, Fobbe, F, Matthews, R, Koliński, R, O. 2017, The Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq as a Violation of Human Rights, RASHID International e.V, Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Archeology, Munich, Germany. Pp. 7-12

-      Osaherumwen, I.S., and Mutunrayo, A.K., 2013. International Terrorism in the Middle East: ISIS as a Case Study. Science and world, p.59.

-      Parker, Ch, and Moore, P, W 2007. The War Economy of Iraq. Global Policy Forum. [Online] Available at https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/167/35672.html (Accessed December 3 2019).

-      Pirnie, B., and O'Connell, E., 2008. Counterinsurgency in Iraq (2003-2006) (Vol. 2). Rand Corporation. Pp. 15-16.

-      Puttick, M., 2015. No Place to Turn: Violence against women in the Iraq conflict. Ceasefire Centre for Civilian Rights and Minority Rights Group International.. [Online] Available at:

-      https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/ceasefire-report-no-place-to-turn.pdf (Accessed December 16 2019).

-      Quiggin, T., 2009. Understanding al-Qaeda's ideology for counter-narrative work. Perspectives on Terrorism, 3(2), pp.20-21.

-      Rabasa, A et al. 2006. Beyond al-Qaeda: The global jihadist movement. RAND Corporation.

-      ReliefWeb 2014. Iraq Displacement Profile. [online] Available at:https://reliefweb.int/report/iraq/iraq-displacement-profile-4-july-2014?fbclid=IwAR3O_tcZFZlQUDJKzcOqOoAY3ko7ogPmG9JRXJ9jMFNcJJc8SZkdaJj68TU [Accessed 5 December 2019].

-      Salim, M, and Morris, L., 2015. Iraqi forces say key oil refinery is back in their hands, The Washington Post, Retrieved: December 4 2019, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/iraqi-forces-say-key-oil-refinery-is-back-in-their-hands/2015/10/15/c19624fc-72b9-11e5-ba14-318f8e87a2fc_story.html

-      Shany, Y, and Tal Mimran, 2014. ISIS: Is the Islamic State Really a State? The Israel Democracy Institute, Retrieved: January 21 2020, from https://en.idi.org.il/articles/5219

-      Styszynski, M., 2014. ISIS and Al Qaeda: Expanding the jihadist discourse. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 6(8), p.9.

-      The International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2015. IRAQ: 2015 ARTICLE IV CONSULTATION AND REQUEST FOR PURCHASE UNDER THE RAPID FINANCING INSTRUMENT—PRESS RELEASE; STAFF REPORT; AND STATEMENT BY THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR FOR IRAQ. [Online] Available at https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2015/cr15235.pdf (Accessed December 3 2019).

-      The New Arab, 2019. The Iraq Report: Almost 800,000 Iraqi children orphaned. [online] Available at: https://english.alaraby.co.uk/english/indepth/2019/4/5/the-iraq-report-millions-of-iraqi-children-abandoned-orphaned [Accessed 24 Jan 2020].

-      UNAMI data extracted from U.N. monthly casualty updates, compiled and provided by the U.K. Home Office/EASO, URL https://www.uniraq.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=category&id=159:civilian-casualties&lang=en

-      UNESCO, 2015. Destruction of Hatra marks a turning point in the cultural cleansing underway in Iraq, [Online] Available at https://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1245 [Accessed January 20 2020].

-      UNICEF 2003. 2003 IRQ: Iraq Watching Briefs — Overview Report, July 2003 | Evaluation database |. [Online] Available at: https://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/index_29697.html [Accessed 13 December 2019].

-      Vidal, J., 2014. Water supply key to the outcome of conflicts in Iraq and Syria, experts warn, the Guardian, Retrieved: January 5 2020, from

-      https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jul/02/water-key-conflict-iraq-syria-isis?fbclid=IwAR3gjumduo8x_SNeXS1_JECYAVnEus9P6vkPP_JnnIvY24ogaQ7zuuX6ZNs

-      https://www.wfp.org/publications/wfp-iraq-situation-report-31-01-december-2015 (Accessed December 10 2019).

-      World Food Programme, 2015. Iraq Crisis Situation Report #31. [Online] Available at https://reliefweb.int/report/iraq/wfp-iraq-situation-report-31-1-december-2015 (Accessed December 9 2019).

-      WORTH, R, F., 2006. Blast Destroys Shrine in Iraq, Setting Off Sectarian Fury, The New York Times, Retrieved: December 9 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/22/international/middleeast/blast-destroys-shrine-in-iraq-setting-off-sectarian.html

-      Wright, R., 2016. The Jihadi Threat: ISIS, al-Qaeda, and beyond. United States Institute of Peace, p.19.

-      Zaimov, S, 2017. ISIS' Destruction of Tomb of Jonah Uncovers Ancient Palace of Biblical King Sennacherib, THE CHRISTIAN POST, Retrieved: 19 Jan 2020, from https://www.christianpost.com/news/isis-destruction-tomb-of-jonah-uncovers-ancient-palace-biblical-king-sennacherib.html

-      Zidan, S, 2015. More than 300 billion dollars in economic losses. Al-akhbar. [Online] Available at: https://al-akhbar.com/Arab/22378 (Accessed 3 December 2019).