توركیا و هه‌رێمی كوردستان: ئابووری یان ئاسایش، توركیا به‌دوای كامیاندا ده‌گه‌ڕێ؟


Turkey and Kurdistan region: economy or security, which one Turkey seeks?
Zubir Rasool Ahmed
International Relations Department, College of Political Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil

Abstract

Turkey’s relationship with the KRG has improved tremendously, especially from 2008 onwards. There are many factors which have contributed to this dramatic change, in particular the economic factor; however, very few scholars look at the KRG-Turkey relations beyond the economic and energy drive, especially the role of security has not been less important. The central question that will be addressed in this paper is, how and why did Turkey become engaged in the KRG in post-2003 Iraq? Which factor has more driven Turkey in their relations with the KRG? To do so, I have mainly relied on the Regional Security Complex theory, which has been formulated by Buzan and Wæver (2003). I will argue that, despite the economic and energy calculations, the Kurdish factor, in particular the PKK factor as a security matter, whether locally or regionally, has been the main reason behind Turkey-KRG relations in both post-2003 Iraq and the KRG. 

Keywords: Turkey, KRG, Regional security complex, energy, PKK, Referendum

پوختە:

ئەم توێژینەوە به‌شێوه‌یه‌كی چڕ به‌دوایی وەڵامی ئەوەدا ده‌گه‌ڕێت، كه‌ ئایا پەیوەندییەکانی توركیا و هه‌رێمی کوردستان له‌ سه‌ر چ بنه‌مایه‌ك داڕێژراون‌؟ توركیا چی له‌ هه‌رێمی كوردستان ده‌وێت؟ لە ڕاستیدا زۆربەی ئەو توێژینەوانەی کە تا ئێستا نوسراون وای دەبینن کە پاڵنەری سەرەکیی ئەو پەیوەندییانەی ئەنقەرە و هەولێر پاڵنەرێکی ئابوورییە، بە تایبەتیش فاکتەری وزە و پێداویستیی تورکیا بۆ ئەم بوارە. بەڵام ئەوەی ئەم توێژینەوەیە لە ئەوانی تر جیادەکاتەوە ئەوەیە، کە توێژینەوەکە دەیەوێت بیسەلمێنێت، پاڵنەری سەرەکیی پەیوەندییەکانی تورکیا و هەرێمی کوردستان پاڵنەرێکی ئاسایشییە – Security ئینجا دواتر پاڵنەری ئابووری و پرسەکانی وزە. ئەمەش ئەو دەرەنجامەیە کە لەو توێژینەوەیەدا پێیگەیشتووین.

هەڵبەتە ئەمە بە مانای نكوڵیكردن نییە لە فاكتەری ئابووری، بەڵكو بەو مانایە دێت كە وێنە گەورەكەی ئەم پەیوەندییانە كۆمەڵێك فاكتەری ترن كە بە تەواوی ده‌چنه‌ چوارچێوه‌ی پرسی ئاسایشی هەرێمیی ئاڵۆز- Regional Security Complex، بۆیە سروشتی كێشەكانی هەرێم و تورکیا و هەروەها بەربەستی بەردەم پەیوەندییەکانی هەردوولاش بە زۆری لە ئاستی ئاسایشی ئاڵۆزدا ڕوودەدەن نەک لەسەر ئاستی ئابورری، واتا کاتێک کێشەکە پەیوەندی بە بوارێکی ئاسایشی یان سیاسیی تورکیاوە دەبێت، بۆ نموونە هەڵکردنی ئاڵای کوردستان لە کەرکوک، یان ئەنجامدانی ڕیفراندۆمی ٢٥ سێپتەمبەری ٢٠١٧.

وشە کلیلییەکان: تورکیا، هەرێمی کوردستان، ئاسایشی هەرێمیی ئاڵۆز، وزە، پ. ک. ک، ڕیفراندۆم

ملخص:

شهدت علاقة تركيا مع حكومة إقليم كردستان تحسنا ملحوظا منذ عام ٢٠٠٨ وذلك بعد تظافر عدة عوامل في إنشاء تلك العلاقة ‏أبرزها العامل الاقتصادي. ينظر الكثير من الباحثين الى جانبي الاقتصاد والطاقة في تحديد شكل هذه العلاقة إلا أن القليل منهم قد تطرقوا الى العامل الأمني الذي أضفى على تلك العلاقة بعدا آخر لم يكن أقل شئناً من العاملين الاخرين في تمتين العلاقة بين حكومة اقليم كردستان وتركيا. يقوم هذا البحث في ايجاد بعض الأجوبة لأسئلة رئيسية أهمها، مالذي يدفع بتركيا الى أن يبحث في توطيد علاقتها بحكومة اقليم كردستان؟ كيف ترى تركيا شكل هذه العلاقة أمنياً واقتصادیا؟ لماذ تتدخل تركيا عسكرياً في كردستان العراق؟ كيف يعكس ذلك التدخل على عاملي الأمني والاقتصادي؟ هذه الأسئلة مؤطرة بإطار نظرية مجمع الأمن الإقليمي- Regional Security Complex، التي صاغها بوزان وويفر (٢٠٠٣). سوف أزعم في هذه الدراسة بأنه على الرغم من أهمية الجانب الاقتصادي و مجال الطاقة، فان العامل الأمني المتمثل في المسألة الكردية من ضمنها وجود حزب العمال الكردستاني، قد فرض هيمنته محليا واقليميا في ترسيم حدود العلاقة بين تركيا وحكومة اقليم كردستان بل وكان العامل الأمني دافعا رئيسيا في إنشاء تلك العلاقة. 

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