پیادەکردنی چەمکی تۆلێرانس وەک چارەسەرێک بە ڕووی سێکتاریانیزمدا: ئایا جۆن لۆک دەتوانێت ببێتە فریادڕەسی عێراقی هاوچەرخ؟


Adopting the Concept of Tolerance as a Solution for Sectarianism. How John Lock Can Rescue Contemporary Iraq?
Hoshang Dara Hama Ameen, Handren Ahmad Eahya, Salar Sewar Ismael
Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and International Relations, Soran university

پوخته:

له‌ سه‌رده‌می ئه‌مڕۆدا، زۆرێك له‌ گه‌لانی وڵاتانی ڕۆژهه‌ڵاتی ناوه‌ڕاست و به‌ دیارییكراویش‌ عێراق، به‌ ده‌ست كێشه‌كانی په‌یوه‌ست به‌ سێكتاریانیزمه‌وه‌ ده‌ناڵێنن. گوتاری ڕقلێبوونه‌وه‌، ناكۆكی و پێكدادانه‌كان له‌ سه‌ر بنه‌مای پێكهاته‌، تائیفیە‌، ئایین و مه‌زهه‌ب و جیاوازییه‌كانی دیكه‌ بوونه‌ته‌‌ سیمایه‌كی دیاری ژیانی سیاسی و ته‌نانه‌ت كۆمه‌ڵایه‌تیی گه‌لانی ئه‌م ناوچه‌یه‌. ئه‌مه‌ش فاكته‌رێكی سه‌ره‌كییه‌ بۆ دواكه‌وتن و دووركه‌وتنه‌وه‌ی ئه‌و گه‌لانه‌‌‌ له‌ پێشكه‌وتن و گه‌شه‌سه‌ندن‌. له‌ لیترچه‌ری په‌یوه‌ست به‌م بابه‌ته‌دا، چه‌ندین پێشنیاز له‌ شوێنكاته‌ جیاوازه‌كاندا خراونه‌ته‌ ڕوو. سەبارەت بە عێراقی دوای 2003شه‌وه‌، هه‌ندێكیان، وه‌ك دیموكراسییه‌كی ته‌وافوقی و ڕێژه‌یی، فیدراڵی و سێكیولاریزم، تا ڕاده‌یه‌ك تاقیكراونه‌ته‌وه‌. هاوكات، هیچیان نه‌یانتوانیوه‌ كۆتایی به‌م گرفته‌ بهێنێت. ئه‌م توێژینه‌وه‌یه‌ هه‌وڵده‌دات چه‌مكی تۆلێرانس لای جۆن لۆك وه‌ربگرێت و له‌ ڕووی تیۆرییه‌وه‌ به‌ سه‌ر كه‌یسی عێراقدا پیاده‌ی بكات. پرسه‌كه‌ ئه‌وه‌یه‌ ئایا فه‌لسه‌فه‌ی جۆن لۆک دەتوانێت ببێتە فریادڕەسی عێراقی هاوچەرخ و چه‌مكی تۆلێرانس ده‌توانێت كۆتایی به‌ پێكدادانه‌كانی تائیفه‌كانی ناو عێراق له‌سه‌ر ئاسته‌ جیاوازه‌كان بهێنێت. ئامانج له‌ ئه‌نجامدانی توێژینه‌وه‌كه‌ دۆزینه‌وه‌ی چاره‌سه‌رێكه‌ بۆ كێشه‌كانی په‌یوه‌ست به‌ ئێتنۆ-سێكتاریانیزم كه‌ بتوانێت به‌رده‌وام بێت، ڕه‌گی خۆی له‌ كۆمه‌ڵگادا دابكوتێت و سروشتێكی نوێ له‌ ژیانی سیاسی و كۆمه‌ڵایه‌تی له‌ عێراق بهێنێته‌ كایه‌وه‌. توێژینه‌وه‌كه‌ به‌ پشتبه‌ستن به‌ چوارچێوه‌یه‌كی تیۆری، تۆلێرانس ڕوونده‌كاته‌وه‌، پاشان بارودۆخی عێراقی هاوچه‌رخ ده‌خاته‌ ڕوو و دواجاریش پێشنیازی خۆی بۆ چاره‌سه‌ری گرفته‌كان ده‌خاته‌ ڕوو.

وشە کلیلییەکان: تۆلێرانس، جۆن لۆک، سێکتاریانیزم، ئیسنیسیتی، عێراق.

ملخص:

فی عصرنا الحالي، الکثیر من شعوب منطقه الشرق الاوسط وتحدیدا العراق، یعانون من المشاکل المتعلقة بالطائفیة. خطاب الکراهیه، الاختلاف والصدام علی اساس المکون، الطائفة، الدین، المذهب والاختلافات الاخری، هي من معالم الحیاة السیاسیة والاجتماعیه لشعوب هذه المنطقة. وهذه هي احدی اسباب التخلف وابتعاد شعوب المنطقة الرئیسیة عن الازدهار. فی الادبیات المرتبطة بهذا الموضوع، تم طرح مجموعة من المقترحات. فیما یخص عراق مابعد 2003، بعض هذه الادبیات السیاسیة مثل الدیموقرطیة التوافقیة والنسبیة، الفدرالیة والعلمانیة قد تم تطبیقها نسبیا الی حد ما وای منها لم تکن بقادرة علی الوصول الی حل مثالي لهذه المشکلة. هذا البحث هو محاولة لتطبیق مفهوم التسامح لدی جون لوک علی النموذج العراقی المعاصر. والسوال الذي یطرح نفسه هنا هو: هل فلسفة جون لوک بقادرة ان تصبح سفینة نجات للعراقیین وهل من الممکن حل المشاکل الطائفیة من خلال تطبیق وتفعیل مفهوم التسامح علی المستویات المتعددة؟ هدف هذا البحث هو ایجاد الحلول المستدامة للمشاکل المرتبطة بالقومیة والطائفیة وخلق طابع سیاسی واجتماعی جدید فی العراق. البحث یحاول فی إطار نظري تفسیر مفهوم التسامح ومن ثم شرح حالة العراق المعاصرة وینتهي بطرح صیغته الخاصة بحل المشاکل الراهنة فی العراق المعاصر.

Abstract

Nowadays, most of the nations in the Middle East, especially Iraq, are facing ethno sectarian conflicts. Hatreds, conflicts, and essential difficulties which are based in their structure, tribes, religion, sect, ethnicity, and others are the crucial aspects on their political and social lives for all nations in the region. And this is the main factor for non-progress and far from modernity and developments. In the literature of this topic, there are so many suggestions that are discussed by different scholars regarding the solutions of ethno sectarian conflicts in Iraq. For instance, some scholars suggest and examines democracy, federalism, and secularism. However, they could not succeed in their attempts at all and they could not finish the ethno sectarian conflicts in Iraq.     

The central purpose of this paper is to investigate the concept of tolerance by John lock as the theory and then apply to the case of Iraq. The research question that will guide the overall argument in this research is as follows: “How John Lock’s philosophy and his concept of tolerance can be a good solution and finish ethno sectarian conflicts in the contemporary Iraq?”

The object of doing this paper is to explore and find a good solution about ethno sectarianism conflicts in order to build new Iraq in terms of political, social, and security stability. The study will draw on the existing literature about concept of tolerance by John Lock as a theoretical framework. Then, the study will understand the current situations in Iraq. Finally, this paper concludes with the recommendations and possible solutions regarding the ethno sectarian conflicts in Iraq.

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